JAAPA CME Post-Test April 2024

A Clinician’s Guide to Pulmonary Hypertension

Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, pulmonary hypertension has high morbidity and mortality. The presenting symptoms often are vague and may mimic other more common diseases, so patients can be misdiagnosed or missed early in the disease process. Early detection of pulmonary hypertension by primary care providers can play an important role in patient outcomes and survival. Identifying signs and symptoms, understanding the causes and classifications, and knowing the systematic approach to evaluating and diagnosing patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension are key to preventing premature patient decline.

Learning Objectives

At the conclusion of this activity, participants should be able to:
  • Describe the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension
  • Differentiate the five classifications of pulmonary hypertension
  • Recognize the signs and symptoms of pulmonary hypertension
  • Define the systematic approach used to diagnose pulmonary hypertension
  • Discuss treatment options and goals for patients with pulmonary hypertension

Esophageal Cancer: Treatment Advances and Need for Screening

Esophageal cancer is a challenging malignancy that often is diagnosed in advanced stages, resulting in a poor prognosis. This activity provides a comprehensive review of the two main types of esophageal cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma, and reviews epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnostic modalities, staging systems, and established and emerging treatments. Recent advancements in treatment for resectable and unresectable esophageal cancer also are explored. These include immunotherapy, targeted therapy, sentinel lymph node mapping, radiogenomics, palliative measures, and screening measures.

Learning Objectives

At the conclusion of this activity, participants should be able to:
  • Understand the two major types of esophageal cancer and the risk factors for each
  • Describe the timeline of a patient’s cancer continuum
  • Understand the components that make up the trimodality approach to treatment
  • Recognize the need for improved screening guidelines and review screening measures

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