JAAPA CME Post-Test February 2024

An Update on Managing Patients With Multiple Sclerosis in Primary Care

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated inflammatory condition of the central nervous system causing periods of recurring inflammation and ultimately progression of symptoms over time. MS is a common cause of disability in younger patients. Evidence-based treatment for patients with MS early in their disease course prevents relapses and delays progression. Early treatments for MS were classified as immune-modulating; newer developments that suppress the immune system are more effective in preventing future relapses and progression but carry risks. The increased use of immunosuppressant therapies for patients with MS makes it imperative for clinicians to understand potential risks, benefits, and serious adverse reactions related to these therapies.

Learning Objectives

At the conclusion of this activity, participants should be able to:
  • Identify the characteristics and key features of MS
  • Describe the typical clinical disease course of MS
  • Describe the typical presentation of MS
  • List the diagnostic criteria for MS
  • List the long-term treatment modalities for MS and their effectiveness

Fever in Infants Ages 8 to 60 Days: An Updated Guideline for Evaluation

Fever in infants under age 60 days is a leading cause of ED, urgent care, and primary care visits. Most infants present as well-appearing, and guidelines for the workup and appropriate management of these children have varied over the decades. Additionally, testing availability, accuracy, and changing bacterial prevalence patterns have rendered many guidelines obsolete. An updated guideline from the American Academy of Pediatrics provides a foundation for clinician evaluation of patients in this vulnerable age group.

Learning Objectives

At the conclusion of this activity, participants should be able to:
  • Summarize the prevalence of pediatric fever presentation
  • Describe how to recognize a well-appearing infant
  • Describe the differential for a febrile, well-appearing infant
  • Identify the workup for febrile, well-appearing infants ages 8 to 60 days

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