JAAPA CME Post-Test January 2024

Can Biomarkers Help Identify Sepsis in Adults?

Sepsis is increasing in incidence in the United States and is one of the most common causes of death in hospitalized patients. Sepsis affects different biochemical and immunologic pathways and can present variably. Despite efforts to unify definitions of sepsis, increase awareness, and improve treatment, mortality remains high. Because of sepsis’s complex pathophysiology, diagnosis can be challenging. No diagnostic test is sensitive or specific enough to diagnose sepsis in isolation. However, three biomarkers—lactate, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin—in combination with other diagnostics may help clinicians diagnose sepsis earlier, leading to better patient outcomes.

Learning Objectives

At the conclusion of this activity, participants should be able to:
  • List the incidence, prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of sepsis
  • Describe the clinical presentation of sepsis
  • Discuss the difference between infection and sepsis
  • Describe systematic approaches to diagnosing sepsis

Overcoming Barriers to Recognizing and Reporting Child Abuse

Infants and children under age three years have the highest risk of dying from child abuse and neglect. Clinicians treating children must recognize and report child abuse. Barriers to consistent recognition and reporting leave children in harm’s way. Often, the signs of abuse in very young children are subtle, and clinicians may fail to recognize and report these signs. Clinicians also must understand the role of bias in the reporting of child abuse and ways to address abuse individually and as part of a larger system.

Learning Objectives

At the conclusion of this activity, participants should be able to:
  • Identify the age at which children are most likely to die from child abuse and neglect
  • Define a sentinel injury
  • Describe how to use the TEN-4-FACESp clinical decision rule
  • Discuss how bias can affect a clinician’s judgment in cases of suspected child abuse and neglect

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