JAAPA CME Post-Test December 2023

Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: An Underrecognized Cause of ACS

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an underrecognized form of nonatherosclerotic acute coronary syndrome, mostly occurring in younger female patients. The knowledge base about the diagnosis and management of SCAD has grown over the past decade, but gaps remain in how best to approach this disease. This activity reviews the research on the prevalence, presentation, and management of SCAD.

Learning Objectives

At the conclusion of this activity, participants should be able to:
  • Define SCAD and identify predisposing factors to this disease
  • Describe the pathophysiology behind SCAD, the different subtypes, and how it differs from atherosclerotic coronary disease
  • Outline the appropriate workup for a patient in whom SCAD is suspected
  • Understand proper medical management of patients with SCAD and features that support an interventional approach
  • Describe the prognosis of patients with SCAD along with pregnancy and activity recommendations

Recognizing Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome in Primary Care

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a complex autonomic disorder characterized by abnormal tachycardia on standing. This disorder predominantly affects young women, with a peak incidence between ages 20 and 30 years. POTS often is associated with a variety of symptoms, including dizziness, palpitations, fatigue, generalized weakness, anxiety, and exercise intolerance, which can significantly impair patient quality of life. Primary care providers (PCPs) often are the first healthcare professionals to whom patients present. This activity provides an overview of POTS, including diagnostic criteria and the importance of a thorough clinical evaluation to rule out other causes of symptoms. PCPs play a critical role in the comprehensive approach to care, involving patient education, lifestyle modifications, and treatment to improve outcomes and enhance patient quality of life.

Learning Objectives

At the conclusion of this activity, participants should be able to:
  • Define POTS and its clinical manifestations
  • Explain the various tests and assessments used to diagnose POTS
  • Describe treatment options for patients with POTS
  • Discuss the importance of patient education and empowerment in the management of POTS and describe strategies to promote self-management and active participation in care

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