JAAPA CME Post-Test April 2023

The Roles of Neuroinflammation and Glutamatergic Excitotoxicity in Treatment-Resistant Depression

Major depressive disorder affects nearly 20% of people during their lifetime. A growing body of evidence supports the theory that neuroinflammation plays a prominent role in the neurobiology of depression, which implicates glutamate and gamma aminobutyric acid as key factors in the pathophysiology of the disease process. This activity reviews the pathologic pathways of glutamate excess in the central nervous system and how they may be implicated in the underlying disorder of treatment-resistant depression and targeted for treatment.

Learning Objectives

  • Understand the limitations of the current monoaminergic model of major depressive disorder
  • Review the cellular biology of glutamate and GABA in the central nervous system, including the effects that glutamatergic excitotoxicity has at the cellular level
  • Understand the link among neuroinflammation, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and major depressive disorder
  • Explain causes of neuroinflammation
  • Outline pharmacologic therapies that may modulate the effects of glutamate excess in the synaptic cleft

Recognizing and Managing Hydrocephalus in Children

Hydrocephalus is one of the most common indications for pediatric neurosurgical intervention and is associated with the need for lifelong monitoring. All clinicians should be familiar with the complications that may arise throughout life in these patients so that they can provide timely intervention. This activity focuses on the assessment of hydrocephalus, the appropriate diagnostic workup and differential diagnoses, and evidence-based surgical treatments and associated outcomes.

Learning Objectives

  • Recognize the signs and symptoms of hydrocephalus in infants and children
  • Accurately assess and diagnose hydrocephalus in infants and children
  • Understand the most common management modalities for hydrocephalus in children and their corresponding indications and complications

AAPA offers no returns or refunds for online CME activities purchased via the AAPA store. All sales are final.