JAAPA CME Post-Test February 2023

An Update on Expanding HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis

HIV continues to affect certain populations disproportionately, including sexual and gender minorities, racial/ethnic minorities, and populations with limited resources in southern U.S. states. New CDC guidelines include a recommendation to discuss HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with all sexually active patients, which is likely to expand use. The guidelines also include important changes in PrEP monitoring and address PrEP telehealth. The FDA approved the first non-oral PrEP, long-acting injectable cabotegravir, in late 2021. However, PrEP continues to be underused. This activity describes how to better employ PrEP in light of these recent significant changes.

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the risk factors for HIV transmission and indications for PrEP
  • Explain the appropriate initiation, monitoring, and follow-up of patients taking PrEP
  • Recognize long-acting injectable cabotegravir as a novel PrEP option
  • Summarize differences in use among available PrEP agents

Wellens Syndrome: An Important Consideration in Patients With Chest Pain

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the number one cause of death in the United States, and it is estimated that every 40 seconds one person experiences a heart attack. Among patients with chronic CAD, many will experience a potentially fatal complication known as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Wellens syndrome is a rare form of ACS that indicates critical left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and can be identified by its characteristic T wave patterns on ECG. This syndrome also may go unrecognized by clinicians because of a lack of familiarity with the ECG findings. This activity describes the Wellens ECG pattern and its significance in patients with chest pain.

Learning Objectives

  • Discuss the incidence and prevalence of Wellens syndrome
  • Review the signs and symptoms of Wellens syndrome and what differentiates this syndrome from other ischemic events
  • Compare and contrast the ECG findings of Wellens syndrome with those of other coronary syndromes
  • Describe treatment strategies for Wellens syndrome

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