JAAPA CME Post-Test December 2022

Herpes Zoster: A Primary Care Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment

Herpes zoster, or shingles, caused by a reactivation of the chickenpox virus, can occur in patients of any age, but is more common in older adults. Patient history is critical in reaching a diagnosis, not only to manage the outbreak effectively, but also to prevent severe complications such as dissemination of the virus into the central nervous system. This article describes recent changes in diagnostic testing, treatment, prevention, and practice guidelines as well as the approach clinicians should take when evaluating patients with herpes zoster and assessing risk for complications.

Learning Objectives

  • Identify clinical findings that would indicate HZV infections
  • Determine how aggressively to treat to prevent complications from HZV
  • Identify the common risk factors for HZV
  • Recognize how anatomy plays a role in the identification of HZV
  • Incorporate new data on prevention and treatment for a practical approach to treating patients with HZV

Understanding Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an entrapment neuropathy affecting the median nerve. Prevalence is estimated at 4% to 5% of the population. A solid understanding of the anatomy, presentation, and diagnostics is key to efficient diagnosis and appropriate referral. Both surgical and nonsurgical interventions have led to improved clinical outcomes. Clinicians who have an in-depth knowledge of CTS symptoms and treatment options can prepare patients and streamline referrals for improved patient outcomes.

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the anatomy and pathophysiology of CTS
  • Review risk factors, clinical features, and examination findings that increase clinical suspicion for CTS
  • Describe diagnostic imaging options for optimal workup and diagnosis
  • Describe conservative and surgical treatments

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