JAAPA CME Post-Test November 2022

Type 3c: Understanding Pancreatogenic Diabetes

Type 3c diabetes, also known as pancreatogenic diabetes, occurs when primary pancreatic disorders damage the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Although often misdiagnosed as type 2 diabetes, type 3c diabetes is different in cause, clinical presentation, treatment, and prognosis. Patients with type 3c diabetes are more likely to experience complications and death related to hypoglycemic events. This activity reviews the causes and management of type 3c diabetes, which is estimated to affect 5% to 10% of all patients with diabetes.

Learning Objectives

  • Define type 3c (pancreatogenic) diabetes
  • Name the effect of pancreatic diseases on the endocrine hormones produced by the islets of Langerhans
  • Differentiate type 3c diabetes from types 1 and 2 in regard to clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment
  • List the diagnostic tests that accurately assess glycemic function for a person with type 3c diabetes
  • Describe the prognosis of type 3c diabetes compared with types 1 and 2

Blunt Chest Wall Trauma: Rib Fractures and Associated Injuries

Blunt injuries to the chest wall, specifically those related to rib fractures, need to be promptly identified and effectively managed to reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, judicious use of multimodal pain management and early identification of patients who will benefit from the surgical stabilization of rib fractures are paramount to optimal outcomes.

Learning Objectives

  • Identify and evaluate BCWT-associated injuries
  • Employ effective management strategies for rib fractures associated injuries including pneumothorax, hemothorax, pulmonary contusions, and upper intra-abdominal injury
  • Describe multimodal pain management and treatment options for BCWT

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