JAAPA CME Post-Test August 2022

Cluster Headache: A Review of Clinical Presentation, Evaluation, and Management

Cluster headache is a primary headache disorder that leads to attacks of excruciating unilateral head pain with ipsilateral cranial autonomic features. These attacks can cluster, with frequent occurrences for weeks or months at a time followed by a period of complete remission. The excruciating pain of these attacks often is accompanied by increased suicidality, delays in diagnosis, and unnecessary invasive interventions. This activity reviews the clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of cluster headache.

Learning Objectives

  • Identify the clinical manifestations of cluster headache
  • Recognize clinical features that can assist in differentiating cluster headache from other headache disorders
  • Describe the role of imaging and other testing in evaluation of patients with a clinical picture of cluster headache
  • List possible treatment options in cluster headache

Evidence-Based Management of Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Over the past decade, fatty liver disease has become a forefront health issue. The clinical implication of this silent disease extends well beyond just the liver and is linked to a variety of health concerns, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. The prevalence of fatty liver disease in the United States is estimated to be 25% and increasing. This activity reviews the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease, how clinicians can recognize contributing factors, and appropriate interventions based on the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease’s guidelines.

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the pathophysiology and spectrum of NAFLD
  • Describe the evaluation and diagnosis of NAFLD, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis
  • Outline management for the treatment of NAFLD

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