JAAPA CME Post-Test July 2022

Diagnosis and Management of Type 2 Diabetes in Children

The incidence of type 2 diabetes in children has risen 4.8% over the past decade, correlating with steadily rising obesity rates in children. Updated guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Diabetes Association encourage early identification and pharmacologic intervention for children with type 2 diabetes. Because of the aggressive disease course in children, comprehensive treatment must include prevention of complications such as diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy as well as management of comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease and dyslipidemia. Because the highest incidence of type 2 diabetes is reported in patients from racial or ethnic minority groups and those of low socioeconomic status, clinicians must work with patients and families to identify socioeconomic disparities that could affect adherence to diabetes management plans and to connect patients with community resources.

Learning Objectives

  • Recognize signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes in children
  • Know the ADA criteria for screening and diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in children
  • Understand pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments for type 2 diabetes in children
  • Identify barriers to care and how to overcome them

Managing a Patient with Acute Colonic Diverticulitis

Acute diverticulitis is a common condition in Western society with the potential for substantial patient morbidity. Depending on the severity, the patient’s clinical presentation and treatment options vary considerably, leaving uncertainty about optimal management. Traditionally, surgery was recommended to prevent complications, persistent symptoms, and recurrent episodes. Improvements in the understanding of the disease’s natural history, diagnostic imaging, and long-term outcomes have prompted changes to diagnosis and treatment guidelines.

Learning Objectives

  • Review the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of acute diverticulitis
  • Discuss the nuances of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis and acute complicated diverticulitis
  • Describe the surgical and medical treatment considerations
  • Identify risks for recurrence, long-term morbidity, and when to refer patients for surgical consultation

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