JAAPA CME Post-Test May 2022

Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Acute Rheumatic Fever in the United States

Acute rheumatic fever is a multisystem autoimmune disease caused by infection with group A streptococcus. The condition most commonly affects children ages 5 to 14 years who are from low-income populations. The diagnosis is clinical; however, the 2015 Jones Criteria can help support it. Acute rheumatic fever poses a significant health risk secondary to rheumatic heart disease. Although acute rheumatic fever is rare in the United States, outbreaks still occur, and certain populations continue to be at increased risk. This activity describes how to identify acute rheumatic fever and provides prompt management and prevention strategies to reduce patient risk for lifelong complications.

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the epidemiology and pathophysiology of acute rheumatic fever
  • Identify the major and minor criteria used to diagnose acute rheumatic fever based on the 2015 Jones Criteria
  • Discuss the main treatment strategies for the major criteria
  • Define primordial, primary, and secondary prevention as it relates to acute rheumatic fever

Hypogonadism in Men: Updates and Treatments

Hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome of testosterone deficiency that presents with nonspecific symptoms of sexual dysfunction, fatigue, and decreased strength or muscle mass. Men with obesity, diabetes, and other comorbidities are at higher risk for hypogonadism. Patients presenting with symptoms should be tested for low testosterone and treated with testosterone replacement. Testosterone therapy carries risks and must be closely monitored. Patients treated for hypogonadism may experience improvement of symptoms and quality of life.

Learning Objectives

  • Discuss the causes of hypogonadism in adult men
  • Review the pathophysiology of hypogonadism
  • Explain the diagnostic workup of patients presenting with hypogonadism
  • Compare and contrast treatment strategies for patients with hypogonadism
  • Describe common adverse reactions to treatments

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