JAAPA CME Post-Test August 2021

Navigating the Diagnostic Challenges of Bipolar Disorder in Youth
Bipolar disorder in youth is difficult to diagnose and treat, but early detection is important to mitigate risks and improve patient outcomes. This activity evaluates the unique challenges of diagnosing and treating bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. Bipolar disorder is associated with a significant personal and societal health burden and frequently is misdiagnosed and incorrectly treated. More research is needed to understand the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and which treatment options are best throughout the lifespan.

Reducing the Sting: Diagnosis and Management of Hymenoptera Venom Allergy
Hymenoptera species include stinging insects such as wasps, hornets, bees, and fire ants. Allergic reaction to the venom of these insects is a common presenting complaint for patients in primary care and emergency medicine during warmer months. Patients’ clinical presentations may vary, and clinicians must identify the type of reaction to determine treatment and follow-up plans. Treatment of patients allergic to Hymenoptera venom should be individualized based on risk factors, reaction type, and associated comorbidities. This activity reviews common features of clinical presentation, diagnosis, and the current mainstays in management of Hymenoptera venom allergy.

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