JAAPA CME Post-Test February 2021

Understanding Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disorder with increasing prevalence in children. The diagnosis and management of GERD remains a challenge because of its nonspecific symptomatology from infancy through adolescence. Certain presenting alarm symptoms warrant a further, more extensive workup. Treatment of pediatric GERD begins with lifestyle and nonpharmacologic management, including postural adjustments, dietary changes, and weight loss if indicated. Pharmacologic interventions can be prescribed to relieve symptoms for patients whose disease does not respond to lifestyle management. Patients with refractory symptoms can be managed with surgical intervention. Complications may arise if GERD remains untreated, ranging from worsening oral health to failure to thrive.

Probiotics for Preventing Recurrent Bacterial Vaginosis
Multiple studies have shown that oral or vaginal probiotics can effectively treat and prevent recurrent bacterial vaginosis. The dose, route, and treatment protocols vary greatly between studies, but many have shown a statistically significant reduction in the rate of recurrence of bacterial vaginosis. Further research is needed to determine the adequate dose, specific probiotic, optimal duration, and route of administration, with or without antibiotics.

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