JAAPA CME Post-Test January 2021

Managing Tumor Lysis Syndrome
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is one of the most common oncologic emergencies, occurring when tumor cell contents are rapidly released into the bloodstream. This release of cellular contents, including uric acid, phosphate, and potassium, can rapidly overwhelm the body’s homeostasis mechanisms, leading to renal failure, seizures, cardiac dysrhythmias, or death. With an estimated 1.8 million new diagnoses of cancer projected in 2020 and an increase in the use of targeted agents for treatment, healthcare providers must be able to recognize, diagnose, and manage patients presenting with TLS.

Guidelines for Screening and Managing Hypertension in Children
Pediatric hypertension has risen to an overall prevalence of 16.3%. If left untreated, hypertension in children and adolescents can have significant implications for cardiovascular and renal health into adulthood, including stroke, coronary artery disease, kidney disease, and heart failure. In 2017, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) released updated guidelines for the screening, evaluation, and management of pediatric hypertension. This activity reviews the definition of pediatric hypertension, describes why the guidelines were updated, and defines treatment protocol. By familiarizing themselves with and applying these guidelines, clinicians will be able to appropriately screen and manage hypertension in children to prevent morbidity into adulthood.

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