JAAPA CME Post-Test May 2020

Recognizing and Managing Upper Extremity Compartment Syndrome
Compartment syndrome is an acute limb-threatening condition typically treated with emergency fasciotomy. Although limbs often are saved, ischemia can cause irreversible neurologic damage to the extremity. Patients with upper extremity compartment syndrome may lose fine motor function, which can result in long-term impairment of perceived quality of life. This activity reviews the anatomy, physiology, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of upper extremity compartment syndrome, including rehabilitation, which can reduce complications that occur even in patients who were promptly and properly treated.

Subclinical Hypothyroidism: To Treat or Not to Treat?
Subclinical hypothyroidism affects 4.3% of the US population. Despite this prevalence, whether to treat or to observe patients with subclinical hypothyroidism remains controversial. Guidelines for overt hypothyroidism strongly favor treatment for symptomatic benefits, but the same benefits of levothyroxine treatment have not been proven for patients with subclinical hypothyroidism—most likely due to the asymptomatic nature of the condition. Additionally, a connection between subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular complications has not been definitively established, although the evidence favors a relationship. This activity describes the background, presentation, and diagnostics of subclinical hypothyroidism, treatment, and potential cardiovascular complications, so clinicians can decide if initiating treatment is best for their patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

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