JAAPA CME Post-Test March 2020
The Electronic Cigarette Epidemic in Youth and Young Adults: A Practical Review
Electronic cigarettes are the most common form of nicotine delivery used by youth and young adults, and in 2018, the US Surgeon General declared this to be an epidemic. The developing adolescent brain is vulnerable to nicotine exposure, which can lead to long-lasting cognitive and mood disorders. Screening rates for vaping are low and lack of knowledge by adolescents, clinicians, parents, and caregivers is high. This article reviews the components of vaping, prevalence, adverse reactions, regulation, treatment, and prevention strategies related to vaping in youth and young adults.
Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: Review of Broken Heart Syndrome
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as broken heart syndrome, apical ballooning syndrome, or stress cardiomyopathy, occurs when a stressful emotional or physical event causes the left ventricle of the heart to dilate, leading to acute heart failure. The syndrome was first described in Japan in 1990. Signs and symptoms of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy are similar to acute myocardial infarction. The syndrome presents with similar ECG and biomarker indications, so it often goes undiagnosed until coronary angiography is performed and reveals no blockage. Treatment is largely supportive. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) may reduce the likelihood of recurrent episodes. Overall, the prognosis is very good, with about 95% of patients making a full recovery.