JAAPA CME Post-Test January 2019
No Longer Failing to Treat Heart Failure: A Guideline Update Review | Trigger Finger: An Overview of the Treatment Options
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No Longer Failing to Treat Heart Failure: A Guideline Update Review

Jonathan Parch, MPAP, PA-C; Chloe Powell, MPAS, PA-C

Heart failure is a leading cause of hospital admissions and death in the United States and worldwide. In 2016, the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and the Heart Failure Society of America released a joint focused guideline update for the management of patients with Stage C heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. An additional update released in 2017 reinforces the 2016 update’s strong recommendation for substituting angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers with an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor to reduce morbidity and mortality in selected patients. The 2017 and 2016 updates also support adding a sinoatrial node modulator to further reduce heart rates in patients already maximized on beta-blocker therapy. These innovative therapies can significantly improve patients’ quality of life and reduce the healthcare costs associated with managing heart failure.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to:

  • Describe the changes made to the 2013 ACCF/AHA heart failure guidelines with the 2016 and 2017 updates.
  • Explain the benefits of non-pharmacologic therapy for heart failure.
  • Compare and contrast the use of ACE inhibitors or ARBs with an angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor and the use of beta-blockers with ivabradine.

 

Trigger Finger: An Overview of the Treatment Options

Amber Matthews, PA-C, MPAM; Kristen Smith, PA-C, MPAM; Laura Read, PA-C; Joyce Nicholas, PhD; Eric Schmidt, PhD

Stenosing flexor tenosynovitis, more commonly known as trigger finger, is one of the most common causes of hand pain and dysfunction. Clinicians must be able to identify the disorder, know the broad range of treatment options, and counsel patients on the treatment best suited for their condition. Awareness of the economic burden each option entails is central to optimizing treatment outcomes and patient satisfaction.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to:

  • Describe the typical presentation of a patient with trigger finger.
  • List the commonly used treatments to manage symptoms of trigger finger.
  • Describe the economic effect of the various treatment options with regards to therapeutic decision-making.

Accreditation Statement


This activity has been reviewed by the AAPA Review Panel and is compliant with AAPA CME Criteria. This activity is designated for 1.0 AAPA Category 1 CME credit. PAs should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation. Approval is valid through January 31, 2020. 

Disclosure Policy Statement

It is the policy of AAPA to require the disclosure of the existence of any significant financial interest or any other relationship a faculty member has with the commercial interest of any commercial product discussed in an educational presentation. The participating faculty reported the following:

Jonathan Parch practices cardiothoracic surgery at the Smidt Heart Institute at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, Calif. Chloe Powell is a clinical instructor of family medicine in the Primary Care PA Program at the University of Southern California’s Keck School of Medicine in Alhambra, Calif. At the time the Trigger Finger: An Overview of the Treatment Options article was written, Amber Matthews and Kristen Smith were students in the PA program at the University of Lynchburg in Lynchburg, Va. Ms. Matthews now practices pediatrics at Blue Ridge Medical Center in Arrington, Va. Ms. Smith now practices critical care at Central Lynchburg General Hospital. Laura Read is director of didactic education in the PA program at the University of Lynchburg. Joyce Nicholas is director of evaluation, assessment, and compliance in the PA program at the University of Lynchburg. Eric Schmidt is an assistant professor at the University of Lynchburg.The authors have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

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Type:     Journal-based CME
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