JAAPA CME Post-Test November 2018
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Veterans: Treatments and Risk Factors for Nonadherence | Preventing Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Other Sleep-related Infant Deaths
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Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Veterans: Treatments and Risk Factors for Nonadherence

Bradley Haveman-Gould, MHS, PA-C; Chelsea Newman

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects about 20% of US military veterans and is a major cause of mortality in these men and women. The incidence of PTSD has persisted over the last decade with the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, yet treatment and adherence remain inadequate in part due to clinician lack of knowledge about cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure, the proven gold standards in treatment. This activity reviews the most current and successful PTSD treatment options and identifies risk factors for patient nonadherence in hopes of reducing the rate of veteran suicide related to PTSD.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to:

  • Define PTSD and the reasons for its relatively high prevalence in US combat veterans.
  • List the therapeutic approaches available for PTSD and their relative effectiveness.

Preventing Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Other Sleep-related Infant Deaths

Mazal Maged, MS, PA-C; Denise Rizzolo, PhD, MS, PA-C

Sudden infant death syndrome, a type of sleep-related sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) is the leading cause of postneonatal mortality in the United States and the third leading cause of infant death overall. Despite the evidence-based risk-reduction strategies and the highly publicized campaigns for a safe sleep environment, some infants continue to sleep in unsafe sleep conditions. Clinicians need to know the current best practices to reduce the incidence of sleep-related SUID and be knowledgeable to counsel caregivers who may resist adhering to these recommendations. This activity describes the different types of SUID, associated risk factors, and highlights recommendations to help parents and caregivers ensure safe sleep environments for infants.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to:

  • Identify the risk factors for SUID through proper history taking and physical examination.
  • Describe the recommendations for a safe sleep environment for infants.

Accreditation Statement


This activity has been reviewed by the AAPA Review Panel and is compliant with AAPA CME Criteria. This activity is designated for 1.0 AAPA Category 1 CME credit. PAs should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation. Approval is valid through November 30, 2019. 

Disclosure Policy Statement

It is the policy of AAPA to require the disclosure of the existence of any significant financial interest or any other relationship a faculty member has with the commercial interest of any commercial product discussed in an educational presentation. The participating faculty reported the following:

Bradley Haveman-Gould practices neurology at Mercy Health Physician Partners in Grand Rapids, Mich., is an adjunct faculty member in the PA program at Drexel University in Philadelphia, Pa., and is an assistant clinical affiliate faculty member in the PA program at Grand Valley State University in Grand Rapids. Chelsea Newman is a student in the PA program at Drexel University. Mazal Maged practices urgent care at Advantage Care Physicians in Staten Island, N.Y. Denise Rizzolo is an associate professor in the School of Nursing at Kean University in Union, N.J., and an assistant clinical professor in the Pace Completion Program in the Department of Physician Assistant Studies in New York City.  The authors have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

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Type:     Journal-based CME
1000 Registered Users