JAAPA CME Post-Test August 2018
Understanding Osteosarcomas | Alopecia Due to High Androgen Index Contraceptives
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Understanding Osteosarcomas

Emily Simpson, MMSc, PA-C; Heather L. Brown, MS, PA-C, DFAAPA

This activity reviews the cause, clinical presentation, diagnostic methods, and management of osteosarcoma, the most common primary bone tumor and third most common cancer among children and adolescents. In the 1970s, the introduction of adjuvant chemotherapy following tumor resection improved overall 10-year survival from 30% to about 50% of patients. However, since that change in management strategy, the survival rate has since plateaued, with no improvement in overall 10-year survival since the 1990s. A better understanding of this disease is the first step to help improve these numbers.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to:

  • Describe the typical presentation of osteosarcoma.
  • Propose an approach to diagnosing osteosarcoma based on clinical findings, laboratory studies, and imaging.
  • Compare and contrast the management of primary and recurrent osteosarcoma and metastatic lesions.

Alopecia Due to High Androgen Index Contraceptives

Katelyn Y. Graves, PhD; Benjamin J. Smith, PA-C, DFAAPA; Brigitta C. Nuccio, MPAS, PA-C

Adverse reactions to hormonal contraceptives are a common patient concern. Alopecia, an adverse reaction to androgen activity caused by the progestin component of hormonal contraceptives, can cause considerable psychosocial distress for women. This activity outlines how to identify the level of androgen activity in certain progestins, how increased androgen activity can lead to hair loss, and alternatives for patients experiencing androgenic alopecia due to high androgen index contraceptives.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to:

  • List the four categories of commonly used progestins based on their androgen index.
  • Devise an appropriate management strategy for a patient experiencing alopecia secondary to hormonal contraceptive use.

Accreditation Statement


This activity has been reviewed by the AAPA Review Panel and is compliant with AAPA CME Criteria. This activity is designated for 1.0 AAPA Category 1 CME credit. PAs should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation. Approval is valid through August 31, 2019. 

Disclosure Policy Statement

It is the policy of AAPA to require the disclosure of the existence of any significant financial interest or any other relationship a faculty member has with the commercial interest of any commercial product discussed in an educational presentation. The participating faculty reported the following:

At the time the "Understanding Osteosarcomas" article was written, Emily Simpson was a student in the PA program at Mercer University in Atlanta, Ga. She now practices urgent care medicine with Georgia Emergency Associates in Savannah, Ga. Heather L. Brown is an adjunct assistant professor in the PA program at Mercer University. In the PA program at Florida State University in Tallahassee, Fla., Katelyn Y. Graves is on the research faculty, Benjamin J. Smith is director of didactic education, and Brigitta C. Nuccio is an assistant professor.The authors have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

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Type:     Journal-based CME
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