JAAPA CME Post-Test December 2017
Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: The Difficulties of Diagnosis | Bacterial Vaginosis: A Practical Review
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Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: The difficulties of diagnosis

Kerry L. Whitaker, DHSc, PA-C

Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is an autoantibodymediated thrombophilic disorder that causes a hypercoagulable state and can lead to venous thromboembolism, stroke, multiple miscarriages, and other pregnancy complications with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. This activity reviews screening, diagnosis, and management of APS with a focus on the prevention of long-term complications.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to:

  • List the diagnostic criteria for APS.
  • Describe the potential clinical effects in a patient with APS.
  • Describe pharmacologic interventions available for treating APS and when they should be used.

Bacterial vaginosis: A practical review

Paulette Bagnall, MPAS, PA-C; Denise Rizzolo, PA-C, PhD

Bacterial vaginosis is a common vaginal infection that causes discharge, odor, and irritation. It can predispose women to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. Recurrent bacterial vaginosis may require prolonged treatment to return the vaginal flora to a normal predominately lactobacillidominated environment.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to:

  • List the risk factors for bacterial vaginosis and how these should be addressed in the management strategy.
  • Describe the various diagnostic strategies used to confirm the presence of the infectious causes of bacterial vaginosis.
  • Devise an appropriate therapeutic regimen for the patient with newly diagnosed bacterial vaginosis or for recurrent infection.

Accreditation Statement


This activity has been reviewed and is approved for a maximum of 1.0 AAPA Category 1 CME credit by the AAPA Review Panel. Participants should only claim credit commensurate with their participation in the CME activity. This program was planned in accordance with AAPA’s CME Standards. 

Disclosure Policy Statement

It is the policy of AAPA to require the disclosure of the existence of any significant financial interest or any other relationship a faculty member has with the commercial interest of any commercial product discussed in an educational presentation. The participating faculty reported the following:

At the time Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: The difficulties of diagnosis was written, Kerry L. Whitaker was department chair and program director of the PA program at Nova Southeastern University in Jacksonville, Fla. Paulette Bagnall is a women’s health practitioner with the Macomb County Health Department’s family planning program in Mt. Clemens, Mich. Denise Rizzolo is an assistant clinical professor of the Pace Completion Program, Department of PA Studies, in New York City and an associate professor in the School of Nursing at Kean University in Union, N.J. She also is an assessment specialist for the Physician Assistant Education Association. The authors have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

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Type:     Journal-based CME
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