JAAPA CME Post-Test October 2017
Disease Screening and Prevention for Transgender and Gender-Diverse Adults | An Acute Care Approach to Functional Abdominal Pain
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Disease Screening and Prevention for Transgender and Gender-Diverse Adults

Elizabeth Schmidt, MS, PA-C; Denise Rizzolo, PhD, PA-C

Primary care clinicians have an important role in the health and wellness of transgender and gender-diverse (TGD) adults and need to know best practices of health maintenance and disease prevention interventions. This activity focuses on how exogenous use of sex steroids provided as hormone therapy and gender-affirming procedures affect screening and prevention. Hormone therapy can affect the heart, liver, lipids, bones, brain, skin, and reproductive organs; likewise, behaviors and gender-affirming procedures may alter the risks, prevalence, and screening techniques of sexually transmitted infections. Where applicable, modifications accounting for those differences should be incorporated into the primary care of TGD adults.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to:

  • Define the key terminology used when providing care for TGD adults.
  • Describe the changes to standard practice that should be made with respect to health screening and risk assessment for TGD adults.
  • Identify barriers to providing optimal care for TGD adults and how these barriers can be overcome. 

An Acute Care Approach to Functional Abdominal Pain

Edward Krajicek, MD; Stephanie Hansel, MD

Functional abdominal pain disorders are commonly seen in the acute care setting and can be a source of frustration for patients and providers given their inherent chronic nature. However, an understanding of both the general approach to these disorders and the approach to specific common subtypes can help alleviate this frustration and lead to both short-term and long-term therapeutic success. This activity describes the pathophysiology of these disorders and outlines a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to commonly seen functional abdominal pain disorders in adults.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to:

  • Describe the pathophysiologic explanations for the symptomatic manifestations of functional GI disorders and how these are related to diagnostic and management strategies.
  • Outline a diagnostic strategy for the most common functional GI disorders.
  • Provide an appropriate treatment plan for a patient with a functional GI disorder that encompasses pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches to symptom management.

Accreditation Statement


This activity has been reviewed and is approved for a maximum of 1.0 AAPA Category 1 CME credit by the AAPA Review Panel. Participants should only claim credit commensurate with their participation in the CME activity. This program was planned in accordance with AAPA’s CME Standards. 

Disclosure Policy Statement

It is the policy of AAPA to require the disclosure of the existence of any significant financial interest or any other relationship a faculty member has with the commercial interest of any commercial product discussed in an educational presentation. The participating faculty reported the following:

Elizabeth Schmidt is an assistant professor in the PA program at Butler University in Indianapolis, Ind. Denise Rizzolo is an assistant clinical professor in the PA program at Pace University in New York City and an associate professor in the Department of Nursing at Kean University in Union, N.J. Edward Krajicek practices in the Department of Internal Medicine at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. Stephanie Hansel is an assistant professor in the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine in Rochester. The authors have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

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Type:     Journal-based CME
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