JAAPA CME Post-Test September 2017
Diagnosing and Managing Scleroderma-Related Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension | Infertility: A Primer for Primary Care Providers
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Diagnosing and Managing Scleroderma-Related Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

Katherine Alexis Athanasiou, PA-C; Sonu Sahni, MD; Amrinder Rana, MBBS; Arunabh Talwar, MD

Scleroderma is an uncommon autoimmune disease of unknown cause that may affect any organ system in the body. Patients with scleroderma are prone to developing pulmonary complications, including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), that are the leading cause of death in this population. This activity describes scleroderma-related PAH and its diagnosis and management.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to:

  • List the defining features of PAH and how they are measured in the process of diagnosing this disease.
  • Describe the method of classifying symptom severity using the WHO functional classification system.
  • Compare and contrast the diagnostic studies used to monitor or diagnose PAH in patients with scleroderma and describe when their use would be appropriate.
  • Propose a treatment approach for PAH in a patient with scleroderma using pulmonary vasodilator therapy, surgical management, and adjunct therapies.

Infertility: A Primer for Primary Care Providers

Jill Cunningham, MHS, PA-C

Infertility is a potentially life-changing diagnosis for couples who are trying to conceive. A diagnosis of infertility and the associated management plan can lead to psychological stress, anxiety, and depression for one or both partners. Infertility affects 6% of married women of reproductive age in the United States. Once a couple is determined to be infertile, prompt referral to a specialist is indicated. Treatment varies according to the cause and may include medication, surgical intervention, or assisted reproductive technology.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to:

  • Describe the epidemiology of infertility in the United States and its effect on patient health and well-being.
  • List the major diseases associated with infertility and how they can be clinically distinguished from one another.
  • Provide a treatment approach for infertility in men and women that encompasses all major contributing diseases as well as overall patient health.

Accreditation Statement


This activity has been reviewed and is approved for a maximum of 1.0 AAPA Category 1 CME credit by the AAPA Review Panel. Participants should only claim credit commensurate with their participation in the CME activity. This program was planned in accordance with AAPA’s CME Standards. 

Disclosure Policy Statement

It is the policy of AAPA to require the disclosure of the existence of any significant financial interest or any other relationship a faculty member has with the commercial interest of any commercial product discussed in an educational presentation. The participating faculty reported the following:

Katherine Alexis Athanasiou practices rheumatology at the Arthritis Institute of Long Island in Hicksville, N.Y. At Northwell Health System in New Hyde Park, N.Y., Sonu Sahni is a clinical research physician, Amrinder Rana is a research volunteer, and Arunabh Talwar is a physician in the Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine and director of the Advanced Lung Disease Center. Jill Cunningham is an assistant professor in the PA program at Philadelphia (Pa.) College of Osteopathic Medicine.The authors have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

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Type:     Journal-based CME
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