JAAPA CME Post-Test August 2017
Out of Air: Is Going to High Altitude Safe for Your Patient? | Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Current Concepts in Practice
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Out of Air: Is Going to High Altitude Safe for Your Patient?

Ann M. Mendenhall, MPAP, PA-C; Christopher P. Forest, MSHS, DFAAPA, PA-C

As more people travel to high altitudes for recreation or work, more travelers with underlying medical conditions will need advice before traveling or treatment for altitude illness. This activity focuses on the two main issues for travelers: whether travel to a high altitude will have a negative effect on their underlying medical condition and whether the medical condition increases the patient’s risk of developing altitude illness. Although patients with severe pulmonary or cardiac conditions are most at risk in the hypoxic environment, other conditions such as diabetes and pregnancy warrant attention as well.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to:

  • Describe the pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of high altitude illness in healthy patients.
  • Discuss consensus definitions and role of pulse oximetry in the diagnosis and management of high altitude illness.
  • Discuss the potential effects of travel to high altitudes for patients with common chronic medical conditions.
  • Recognize conditions or illnesses that increase a patient’s risk for developing altitude sickness.

Necrotizing enterocolitis: Current Concepts in Practice

Alysia Agnoni, MS, PA-C; Christine Lazaros Amendola, MS, PA-C

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in preterm infants and continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The incidence of NEC as well as mortality from the disease has persisted at unacceptably high levels for decades as current understanding of the cause remains incomplete. Identifying infants at risk and preventing NEC are mainstays of care. This activity briefly examines disease presentation and treatment, identifies gaps in current understanding of disease pathology, and highlights new research that may lead to a decrease in the incidence of NEC in the future.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to:

  • Discuss the epidemiology and pathophysiologic features of NEC in preterm infants.
  • Examine the clinical presentation and management of NEC.
  • Describe evidence-based approaches to identify infants at risk and prevent NEC.

Accreditation Statement


This activity has been reviewed and is approved for a maximum of 1.0 AAPA Category 1 CME credit by the AAPA Review Panel. Participants should only claim credit commensurate with their participation in the CME activity. This program was planned in accordance with AAPA’s CME Standards. 

Disclosure Policy Statement

It is the policy of AAPA to require the disclosure of the existence of any significant financial interest or any other relationship a faculty member has with the commercial interest of any commercial product discussed in an educational presentation. The participating faculty reported the following:

Ann M. Mendenhall practices at Western Sierra Medical Clinic in Grass Valley, Calif., and is a recent graduate of the University of Southern California’s primary care PA program. Christopher P. Forest is an assistant professor of clinical family medicine and director of research at USC’s Keck School of Medicine and practices urgent care and family medicine in Los Angeles, Calif. Acknowledgments: The authors would like to thank Peter Hackett, MD, clinical professor of emergency medicine at the University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine and director of the Institute for Altitude Medicine in Telluride, Colo., and Andrew Luks, MD, associate professor of medicine in the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at the University of Washington for their assistance with the Out of Air article. Alysia Agnoni practices in the neonatal intensive care unit at Geisinger Medical Center in Danville, Pa., and has worked in pediatric general and trauma surgery. Christine Lazaros Amendola is an assistant clinical professor and clinical education coordinator in the PA program at Pace University in New York City and Westchester, N.Y. She also practices emergency medicine at Jacobi Hospital in the Bronx, N.Y. The authors has disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

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Type:     Journal-based CME
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