Diabetes Leadership Edge: Advancing PA Leadership in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes | Module 5 - Pharmocotherapy Part 2: Insulin Therapy and Challenging Cases
This interactive module is five of five designed to prepare PAs to effectively care for patients affected by diabetes.

Module 5 - Pharmocotherapy Part 2: Insulin Therapy and Challenging Cases

Ji Chun, PA-C, MPAS, BC-ADM; Mary P. Ettari, PA, MPH; Ashlyn Smith, PA-C, MMS; Corri Wolf, PA-C, MS, RD

This module is a continuation of the discussion on pharmacotherapy begun in module 4, Pharmocotherapy Part 1: Treatment Algorithm and Non-Insulin Therapies, and focuses on insulin treatment.

Educational Objectives

At the conclusion of this activity, you should be able to:
  • Identify patient barriers to the introduction of an injectable agent and formulate strategies to overcome these barriers.
  • Review the range of insulin and insulin-containing combination products and principles for deploying them in regimen.
  • Define situations where introducing basal insulin at bedtime would be appropriate.
  • Formulate guideline-compliant regimens for a range of patients based on patient characteristics and specific clinical situations.
  • Evaluate regimens and develop strategies to intensify therapy when a regimen is not achieving desired results.

Accreditation Statement

This activity has been reviewed and is approved for a maximum of 1.0 AAPA Category 1 CME credit by the AAPA Review Panel. Participants should only claim credit commensurate with their participation in the CME activity. This program was planned in accordance with AAPA’s CME Standards for Enduring Material Programs and for Commercial Support of Enduring Material Programs. Approval valid until July 31, 2020.

Disclosure Policy Statement

It is the policy of AAPA to require the disclosure of the existence of any significant financial interest or any other relationship a faculty member has with the commercial interest of any commercial product discussed in an educational presentation. The participating faculty reported the following:

Program Developers

Optum Medical Partners: Endocrinology
Orange County, CA
Faculty, A.T. Still University
Secretary, American Society of Endocrine PAs
No commercial relationships to disclose

Mary P. Ettari, PA, MPH
Volunteers in Medicine Clinic
Stuart, FL
Disclosures: Consultant for Johnson & Johnson

Ashlyn Smith, PA-C, MMS
Endocrinology Associates, PA
Scottsdale, AZ
No commercial relationships to disclose

Corri Wolf, PA-C, MS, RD
Associate Professor
Department of PA Studies
New York Institute of Technology
Old Westbury, NY
No commercial relationships to disclose

Activity Planners

Marie-Michele Leger, MPH, PA-C
Alexandria, VA
Employment - AAPA

Eric Peterson
Alexandria, VA
Employment - AAPA

Off-Label/Unapproved Product(s) Discussion

There are no references to off-label/unapproved uses of products in this program. 


The opinions and comments expressed by faculty and other experts, whose input is included in this program, are their own. This enduring material is produced for educational purposes only. Please review complete prescribing information of specific drugs mentioned in this program including indications, contraindications, warnings, and adverse effects and dosage before administering to patients.

Acknowledgement of Commercial Support

Supported by an educational grant from Novo Nordisk

AAPA offers no returns or refunds for online CME activities purchased through the AAPA store. All sales are final.

Type:     Internet Activity (Enduring Material)
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